Effective Instruction for Middle School Students with Reading Difficulties: The Reading Teacher's Sourcebook

Authors: Carolyn A. Denton Ph.D., Sharon Vaughn, Jade Wexler Ph.D., Deanna Bryan, Deborah S. Reed

Format: Layflat, 328 pages, 8.5 x 11.0
ISBN: 9781598572438
Price: $49.95

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Reading problems don't disappear when students enter middle school-recent studies show that nearly a quarter of today's eighth graders aren't able to read at a basic level.* This book arms language arts teachers with the lessons, strategies, and foundational knowledge they need to resolve older students' reading difficulties and increase their chances for academic success.

Ideal for use with struggling readers in Grades 6-8, this book clearly lays out the fundamentals of effective teaching for adolescents with reading difficulties. Teachers will discover how to

  • select and administer assessments for comprehension, fluency, and word recognition
  • use assessment results to plan individualized instruction
  • apply research-supported instructional practices
  • develop flexible grouping systems so students get the targeted instruction they need
  • set manageable short-term learning goals with students
  • keep the pacing of instruction quick and energetic so students stay engaged
  • give appropriate positive and corrective feedback
  • monitor student progress over time
  • promote generalization of new reading skills
  • provide effective interventions within a school-wide Response to Intervention framework

To help teachers incorporate evidence-based practices into their classroom instruction, they'll get more than 20 complete, step-by-step sample lessons for strengthening adolescents' reading skills. Easy to adapt for use across any curriculum, the sample lessons provide explicit models of successful instruction, with suggested teacher scripts, checklists for planning instruction, key terms and objectives, strategies for guided and independent practice, tips on promoting generalization, and more.

With this practical guide to high-quality instruction, middle school teachers will help struggling readers develop the skills they need to master complex academic content and succeed inside and outside the classroom.

With 20+ step-by-step sample lessons that improve

  • Fluency
  • Comprehension
  • Word recognition
  • Vocabulary

*National Center for Education Statistics, 2011


Review by: Linda Mason, Department of Educational Psychology, Counseling, and Special Education, The Pennsylvania State University
“This timely evidence-based book will be a valuable resource for middle schools striving to meet reading standards.”
Review by: Robert Reid, Professor Special Education University of Nebraska
“An outstanding book that every reading teacher should have . . . written in an approachable manner and chock full of practical tips and critical information.”
Review by: Jessica Hagaman, University of Nebraska - Omaha
“An outstanding resource for both preservice and practicing middle school teachers . . . provides user-friendly, research-based information on assessment, progress monitoring, and instructional grouping to support students with reading difficulties.”
Review by: Virginia Berninger, Professor and Director of the NICHD-funded Center for OWLs
“A practical, evidence-based way to bring out improved student learning outcomes . . . should be required reading in all preservice and inservice teacher education programs.”
Review by: Joan Sedita, Founder of Keys to Literacy
“A great sourcebook that provides detailed sample lessons that can be used immediately to teach research-based reading strategies across several tiers of instruction.”

Table of Contents

About the Authors

I. Assessing Struggling Readers at the Secondary Level

Terms to Know
  1. A Schoolwide Approach to Reading Intervention
    Tier I: Schoolwide Strategies and Routines
    Tier II: Strategic Intervention
    Tier III: Intensive Intervention
    Implementing a Schoolwide Reading Intervention Approach

  2. Overview of Assessment at the Secondary Level
    The Sequence of Assessment

  3. Selecting and Administering Assessments
    Assessing Reading Fluency
    Assessing Word Recognition
    Monitoring Student Progress Over Time
    Caveats About Oral Reading Fluency in Middle School Students
    Outcome Assessments

  4. Using Assessment Results to Plan Instruction
    Grouping Students for Instruction
    Determining the Instructional Focus
    Setting Short-Term Goals with Students
    Scheduling Small-Group Instruction
    An Alternative Schedule for Reading Intervention Classes
    Managing Small-Group Instruction
II. Effective Instruction for Struggling Readers
  1. Components of Effective Instruction
    Terms to Know
    Statement of Objective or Purpose
    Daily Review
    Explicit Modeling and Teaching
    Guided Practice
    Independent Practice
    Teaching for Generalization
    Monitoring Student Learning
    Periodic Review and/or Multiple Opportunities for Practice

  2. Delivering Effective Instruction
    Terms to Know
    Explicit Instruction
    Targeted Instruction
    Time on Task
    Quick Pacing of Lessons
    Positive Feedback
    Corrective Feedback
    Engaged Reading Practice
    Address Student Motivation
III. Research-Supported Instructional Practices

Terms to Know

Sample Lessons in this Book
  1. Comprehension
    Sample Lesson: Before-, During-, and After-Reading Comprehension: Previewing Text and Question Generation
    Sample Lesson: Before-, During-, and After-Reading Comprehension: Generating Level 1 (Right-There) Questions
    Sample Lesson: Before-, During-, and After-Reading Comprehension: Generating Level 2 (Putting-It-Together) Questions
    Sample Lesson: Before-, During-, and After-Reading Comprehension: Generating Level 3 (Making-Connections) Questions
    Sample Lesson: During Reading: Mental Imagery Log
    Sample Lesson: During Reading: Main Idea Strategy
    During Reading: Identifying Text Structures and Using Graphic Organizers
    Sample Lesson: After Reading: Summarizing Text
    Sample Lesson: After Reading: Wrap-Up/Main Idea Log

  2. Vocabulary
    Terms to Know
    Word Types
    Choosing Words to Teach
    Explicitly Teaching Word Meanings
    Word Knowledge
    Word Consciousness
    Word Learning
    Sample Lesson: Word Knowledge: Semantic Mapping
    Sample Lesson: Word Knowledge: Semantic Feature Analysis
    Sample Lesson: Word Knowledge: Generating Examples and Nonexamples
    Sample Lesson: Word Consciousness: Prepared Participation
    Sample Lesson: Word Consciousness: Possible Sentences
    Sample Lesson: Word Learning: The Word-Part Strategy
    Sample Lesson: Word Learning: Using Context Cues
    Sample Lesson: Word Learning: The Outside-In Strategy

  3. Fluency
    Terms to Know
    Why Teachers Should Consider Fluency with Middle School Readers
    Caveats About Oral Reading Fluency in Middle School Students
    Assessing Oral Reading Fluency
    Instruction to Support Reading Fluency
    Sample Lesson: Partner Reading
    Sample Lesson: Readers' Theater
    Sample Lesson: Audio- or Computer-Assisted Reading

  4. Word Recognition
    Terms to Know
    Teaching Students to Recognize Syllable Patterns in Words
    What Do Students Need to Know About Syllables?
    Syllable Types
    A Strategy for Reading Multisyllable Words
    Planning and Implementing Word-Recognition Instruction
    Sample Lesson: Word Recognition: The Multisyllable Word Reading Strategy
    Sample Lesson: Word Recognition: The Silent e Syllable Type
    Selecting an Effective Reading Intervention Program
    Students Who Do Not Respond Adequately to Intervention


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