Home and Community Social Behavior Scales User's Guide

Authors: Kenneth W. Merrell Ph.D., Paul Caldarella Ph.D.

Format: Paperback, 120 pages, 8.5 x 11.0
ISBN: 9781557669919
Price: $49.95

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Social Behavior Scales at-a-glance


Catching "red flag" behaviors early is the key to helping children and adolescents before social-emotional difficulties become major roadblocks to academic success and personal adjustment. Now there are two easy, reliable tools that give K–12 education professionals the complete picture of a child's social-emotional strengths and risk behaviors' in school (SSBS-2) and at home and in the community (HCSBS). Used in tandem, these two tools are the perfect way to

  • identify children with problem behaviors
  • target classroom interventions and develop IEPs
  • measure the effectiveness of interventions over time
  • remove barriers to learning and help children reach their goals
  • bring families into the process to provide the best support for children

Teachers or other school personnel complete SSBS-2, a simple 2-page rating scale that looks at both Social Competence and Antisocial Behavior. Specific items on both positive and negative behaviors give users accurate results and provide direction for intervention and support in school.

To ensure that screening doesn't stop with the school day, follow up with HCSBS set up like SSBS-2 and completed by a parent or other person who knows the child well—to evaluate the child's behavior at home and in the community. Together, these easy-to-use tools provide the most complete information about a child's behavior, help families see where their children need the most support, and improve outcomes by extending behavior screening and intervention beyond the classroom.

Social Behavior Scales at a Glance

  • Screens both positive and negative behaviors, so users get the big picture of a child's social and emotional development.
  • Norm-referenced and standardized norming sample included children from diverse backgrounds and with a wide range of disabilities.
  • Highly reliable and valid (results of studies are included in the User's Guide) Completed by those who know the child best—teachers, parents, and community members.
  • Used for 15 years. Updated since the popular first edition with more research and a more teacher-friendly user's guide, SSBS-2 has been used by educators across the country.
  • No training and very little time required—easy to complete in minutes.
  • Screens behaviors inside and outside the classroom, so users get the full picture of the child's behavior and can target interventions.

The HCSBS User's Guide is part of SSBS-2 and HCSBS, two easy, reliable tools used in tandem to determine a childs social-emotional strengths and risk behaviors in school (SSBS-2) and at home and in the community (HCSBS). Norm-referenced and standardized, these K–12 screeners help educators identify children with problem behaviors, target classroom interventions, measure the effectiveness of interventions over time, remove barriers to learning, and bring families into the process to provide the best support for children.

All Social Behavior Scales Products

Home and Community Social Behavior Scales:

School Social Behavior Scales:


Review by: Connie Maciejewski, JCH Resources, LLC, Muskegon, MI
"Both scales are quick and easy to complete for teachers and for parents, while giving an accurate assessment of student functioning. They are also quick and easy to score. I don't know what I would do without these scales!"

Table of Contents

About the Author

1. Introduction to the HCSBS

Overview of the HCSBS

  • Description
  • Unique Features
  • Purposes
  • Contents and OrganizationForms of Social Behavior
  • Social Competence
  • Antisocial Behavior
  • Social AdjustmentIssues in Using Behavior Rating Scales
  • General Characteristics
  • Advantages
  • Problems
  • Recommended Practices

2. Administration and Scoring Procedures

Completing the Rating Form

  • Spanish Language HCSBS Rating FormUser Qualifications
  • Qualifications for Completing the Rating Form
  • Qualifications for Scoring the Rating Form
  • Qualifications for Interpreting the ResultsDirections for Scoring the Rating Form
  • Step 1: Calculate Subscale Raw Scores
  • Step 2: Calculate Total Raw Scores
  • Step 3: Convert Raw Scores to T-Scores and Percentile Ranks
  • Step 4: Identify and Record Social Functioning Levels

3. Interpreting and Using HCSBS Scores

Three-Level Interpretation Strategy

  • Interpretation Level 1: T-Scores and Percentile Ranks
  • Interpretation Level 2: Social Functioning Levels
  • Interpretation Level 3: Qualitative Inspection of Individual ItemsCase Study
  • Case Study 1: Jeff
  • Case Study 2: Carrie
Cross-Informant Assessment with the HCSBS
Using the HCSBS in Functional Behavior Assessment
Linking Assessment to Intervention

4. Development, Standardization, and Normative Information

HCSBS Development Procedures
Original Development Procedures for the SSBS

  • Step 1: Item Development
  • Step 2: Item Refinement and Reduction
  • Step 3: Content Validation
  • Step 4: Item Rating FormatData Collection ProceduresCharacteristics of the Norming Sample
  • Raters
  • Communities, States, and Geographic Regions
  • Race and Ethnicity
  • Socioeconomic Status
  • Special Education Participation
  • Age
  • GenderDevelopment of Score Conversion Tables
  • Development of Spanish-Language HCSBS Rating Form

5. Reliability of the HCSBS

Internal Consistency Reliability
Standard Error of Measurement
Test-Retest Reliability
Interrater Reliability

6. Validity of the HCSBS

Evidence Based on Test Content
Evidence Based on Internal Structure

  • Factor Structure
  • Intercorrelations Among HCSBS Scale ScoresEvidence Based on Relations to Other Variables
  • HCSBS and Social Skills Rating System
  • HCSBS and Conners Parent Rating Scale, Revised
  • HCSBS and Child Behavior Checklist
  • HCSBS and Behavioral Assessment System for Children
  • HCSBS and ADHD Symptoms Rating Scale
  • HCSBS and Psychopathy Screening Device
  • Summary of Convergent and Discriminant Validity StudiesEvidence Based on Consequences of Testing
  • Group Differences: At-Risk Status
  • Group Differences: Special Education Status
  • Group Differences: ADHD Clinical Status
  • Group Differences: GenderSensitivity to Treatment Outcomes
  • Outcome Evidence: A Prevention Program
  • Outcome Evidence: Anger Control Training
Future Research

Appendix A: Score Conversion Tables for Ages 5-11
Appendix B: Score Conversion Tables for Ages 12-18

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