Pivotal Response Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders, Second Edition

Volume Editors: Robert L. Koegel Ph.D., Lynn Kern Koegel Ph.D., CCC-SLP

Format: Paperback, 304 pages, 7.0 x 10.0
ISBN: 9781681252964
Price: $49.95

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New content, new format!

PRT guidance from infancy to adulthood

One of the most respected and widely used autism interventions, Pivotal Response Treatment uses natural learning opportunities to modify key behaviors in children—leading to widespread positive effects on communication, behavior, and social skills. Now the pioneering experts behind PRT have created a comprehensive modern guide to this research-based approach, completely reworked and revised for today's therapists, educators, and parents.

Strengthened with new research and more step-by-step guidance, this bestselling PRT guidebook is now reorganized to support children on their whole developmental trajectory, from infancy through adulthood. New and revised chapters cover critical topics—including assessment, self-management, and life beyond the classroom—and the book's down-to-earth, accessible style ensures that all readers can grasp PRT principles and apply them effectively. With this proven approach backed by more than 25 years of research, professionals and families will support children with autism as they enjoy more positive interactions, more effective communication, and higher academic achievement.

  • advance children's communication and language skills, even in extremely challenging cases
  • aid early identification and intervention
  • improve children's motivation and performance in school
  • foster friendships with peers during play dates and other social interactions
  • increase positive behavior by combining functional assessment and self-management strategies
  • decrease disruptive behavior
  • help young adults make a smooth transition to college, career, and community life
PRACTICAL MATERIALS: Each chapter features learning goals, key insights to remember, and helpful study questions (also available online to download and print).

New and completely reworked chapters on:
  • Working with infants and toddlers
  • Linking strengths-based assessment to treatment planning
  • Improving adolescents' communication and social skills
  • Teaching parents how to implement PRT
  • Combining functional behavioral assessment and self-management strategies
  • Helping young adults succeed in college and the workplace
PLUS: The book is now organized by developmental stage, so you can help children from the cradle to college—and beyond!


Review by: Jeffrey Wood, Professor of Education and Psychiatry at UCLA
“Drs. Robert and Lynn Koegel are at the vanguard of the autism intervention field with their remarkable applications of Pivotal Response Treatment for every age group and developmental level. They hit a home run with the second edition of this book, offering both parents and practitioners clear explanations of how to implement these groundbreaking practices and covering important contemporary issues such as cultural adaptation and the use of the internet in autism interventions.”
Review by: Daniel Openden, Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center (SARRC)
“PRT continues to evolve with our understanding of the diverse needs of individuals with autism and their families across the lifespan. This updated second edition does an extraordinary job of integrating cutting edge research with a practical approach for improving meaningful outcomes, and now not only for children, but also for adolescents and adults.”
Review by: Robert Naseef, Alternative Choices, author Autism in the Family: Caring and Coping Together
“[This book is] for everyone I speak to making a difference with autism is the passion driving families and professionals. This blended state of the art approach, updated with decades of evidence, hits the mark for individuals living with autism from early childhood through adulthood.”
Review by: V. Mark Durand, Professor of Psychology at University of South Florida St. Petersburg
“In this second edition, Drs. Robert and Lynn Koegel, internationally known authorities on the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder, update their extensive evidence-based intervention approach that can be used across the lifespan. This is a much-needed reference for professionals and students.”
Review by: Teresa Cardon, Associate Professor at Utah Valley University
“This comprehensive guide to PRTs has been updated to include new research, goals, case studies, and a plethora of practical strategies. The Koegel's work with families, educators, and individuals with ASD is reflected throughout the pages of this book and provides a fantastic guide to practitioners across various disciplines. PRT remains one of my go to interventions as an evidence based, relevant, individualized behavioral intervention!”

Table of Contents

About the Downloads
About the Authors
About the Contributors
For the Reader

Section I: Overview: Pivotal Response Treatment in Context

Chapter 1: The History and Basic Components of Pivotal Response Treatment
Robert L. Koegel and Lynn Kern Koegel
  • Chapter Goals
  • History: Applied Behavioral Analysis and Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • The Role of Motivation in Learning
  • Learned Helplessness, Motivation, and Children With ASD
  • Motivational Components of PRT
  • The Overall Motivational Package
  • Key Insights: Components of PRT
  • Summary
  • Study Questions
  • References
Chapter 2: Assessment, Feedback, and Treatment Planning
Lynn Kern Koegel
  • Chapter Goals
  • Challenges Facing Parents of Children Diagnosed With ASD
  • Testing Individuals With ASD: The Limits of Standardized Testing
  • Getting a More Complete Picture: Behavioral Assessment
  • The Value of Strength-Based Assessment
  • Assessment Leading to Treatment Goals
  • Putting It All Together: Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment
  • Key Insights: Working With Parents at the Beginning
  • Summary
  • Study Questions
  • References
Chapter 3: Ecocultural Theory and Cultural Diversity
Sunny Kim, Lynn Kern Koegel, and Robert L. Koegel
  • Chapter Goals
  • Tenets of Ecocultural Theory
  • Cultural Considerations and Sensitivity
  • Embedding Cultural Beliefs and Values Into Treatment
  • Matching Culturally Competent Service Providers With Families
  • Key Insights: Addressing Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
  • Summary
  • Study Questions
  • References
Section II: Beginning Stages: Early Intervention

Chapter 4 Intervention for Infants and Young Toddlers
Jessica Bradshaw and Lynn Kern Koegel
  • Chapter Goals
  • Guidelines for Early Diagnosis
  • Intervention With Infants and Toddlers
  • Key Insights: Working Effectively With Infants, Toddlers, and Their Families
  • Summary
  • Study Questions
  • References
Chapter 5: Teaching First Words
Lynn Kern Koegel and Daina Tagavi
  • Chapter Goals
  • Understanding Early Language Development
  • Early Communication and First Words in Children With ASD
  • Interventions to Elicit First Words: A Brief History
  • Using PRT to Elicit First Words: Specific Components
  • Research Support for Including Motivational Components
  • Creating Ample Opportunities for Verbal Communication
  • Working With Nonresponsive Children
  • Using PRT With Infants
  • Key Insights: Working to Produce a Child's First Words
  • Summary
  • Study Questions
  • References
Chapter 6: Expanding Friendship Opportunities for Children with ASD
Grace W. Gengoux and Laurie A. Vismara
  • Chapter Goals
  • Potential Benefits of Intervention
  • Assessing a Child's Social Opportunities
  • Field-tested Strategies for Expanding Friendship Opportunities During Play Dates
  • Beyond Play Dates: Expanding Friendship Opportunities Across Settings
  • Key Insights: Expanding Friendship Opportunities
  • Summary
  • Study Questions
  • References
Section III: Childhood: Treatment Options at Home and at School

Chapter 7: Parent Education in Pivotal Response Treatment
Lynn Kern Koegel, Kelsey Oliver, and Robert L. Koegel
  • The Importance of Parent Education
  • Fidelity of Implementation of PRT
  • Models of Parent Education
  • Key Insights: Helping Parents Effectively Teach Their Children With ASD
  • Summary
  • Study Questions
  • References
Chapter 8: Inclusive Education
Robert L. Koegel and Kelsey Oliver
  • Chapter Goals
  • Making Education a Top Priority for Children With ASD
  • Inclusion of Children with ASD
  • Revisiting the Debate Over Full Inclusion
  • Key Insights: Providing Inclusive Education for Children With ASD
  • Summary
  • Study Questions
  • References
Chapter 9: Motivational Academics
Lynn Kern Koegel and Samantha Poyser
  • Chapter Goals
  • The Relationship Between Behavior and Academics
  • Incorporating Motivational Variables to Improve Academic Engagement and Behavior
  • Parent Involvement
  • Key Insights: Improving Academics and Behavior Through Motivational Strategies
  • Summary
  • Study Questions
  • References
Section IV: Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Moving Toward Independence

Chapter 10: Functional Behavior Assessment and Self-Management
Brittany Lynn Koegel and Lynn Kern Koegel
  • Chapter Goals
  • The History of Behavioral Interventions
  • The Development of Positive Behavioral Support
  • Analyzing a Behavior's Function and Teaching Replacement Behaviors
  • The Role of Reinforcement in Maintaining Replacement Behaviors
  • Self-Management as a Behavioral Intervention
  • Benefits and Versatility
  • Using Self-Management With Individuals With ASD
  • Using Self-Management for Individuals with Greater Support Needs
  • How to Develop a Self-Management Program
  • Step 1: Define the Target Behavior
  • Step 2: Measure the Target Behavior
  • Step 3: Choose a Reward
  • Step 4: Set an Initial Goal
  • Step 5: Gather Materials
  • Step 6: Teach Discrimination Between Behaviors
  • Step 7: Record (Monitor) the Behavior
  • Step 8: Fade Reliance on Prompts
  • Step 9: Increase Time Intervals or Tallies Required for Rewards
  • Step 10: Fade the Presence of the Treatment Provider
  • Making Sure Self-Management Will Occur in Additional Settings
  • The Widespread Applicability of Self-Management
  • Cautions When Using Self-Management
  • Key Insights: Functional Behavioral Assessment and Self-Management
  • Summary
  • Study Questions
  • References
Chapter 11: Improving Communication Skills in Adolescents and Adults with ASD
Lynn Kern Koegel and Shereen J. Cohen
  • Chapter Goals
  • Video Modeling in PRT
  • Visual Frameworks
  • Instruction in Empathy
  • Question Asking and Question Banks
  • Self-Management
  • Key Insights: Improving Young Adults' Communication Skills
  • Summary
  • Study Questions
  • References
Chapter 12: Improving Socialization in Adolescents and Adults with ASD
Lynn Kern Koegel, Kristen Ashbaugh, and Daina Tagavi
  • Chapter Goals
  • The Impact of Social Difficulties
  • Interventions for Improving Socialization
  • Foundational Studies Using Restricted and Preferred Interests to Improve Socialization
  • Developing Interest-Based Social Activities for Adolescents and Young Adults
  • Training Paraprofessionals to Implement Social Programs
  • Structured Social Planning: Improving Opportunities for Adults
  • Key Insights: Targeting Socialization
  • Summary
  • Study Questions
  • References
Section V: Adulthood: Higher Education and Employment

Chapter 13: Improving Outcomes in Higher Education for Adults With ASD
Kristen Ashbaugh, Erin Engstrom, Lynn Kern Koegel, and Katarina Ford
  • Chapter Goals
  • Supporting Individuals With ASD in Higher Education
  • Common Challenges
  • Methods for Addressing Challenges
  • Key Insights: Helping College Students With ASD Succeed
  • Summary
  • Study Questions
  • References
Chapter 14: Supporting Individuals with ASD in Employment Settings
Erin Engstrom, Kristen Ashbaugh, Lynn Kern Koegel, and Katarina Ford
  • Barriers to Employment
  • Vocational Rehabilitation and Related Programs
  • Behavioral Interventions That Support Employment
  • Integrating Strengths Into the Workplace
  • Supported Employment
  • Key Insights: Fostering Successful Employment
  • Summary
  • Study Questions
  • References

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